Digging In To Magento 2 Logging

Published: January 15, 2018

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For better or worse, logging has changed a lot in Magento 2.

Previously the Mage god class defined a static log method through which all logging happened.

// app/Mage.php
public static function log($message, $level = null, $file = '', $forceLog = false)

Now, logging uses a light wrapper on top of Monolog.

There’s already some good information outlining how to do logging in Magento 2, so we won’t focus on that here (well, we will look at it, but only very briefly). Instead, here we’ll dig into the core Magento logging code to understand exactly how logging works in Magento 2 internally.

NOTE: This post is based as the Magento code base as of version 2.2.2.

The Entry Point

In app/etc/di.xml, very close to the top, you’ll find the following…

<preference for="Psr\Log\LoggerInterface" type="Magento\Framework\Logger\Monolog" />

This means that when you ask for an instance of Psr\Log\LoggerInterface you’ll wind up with an instance of Magento\Framework\Logger\Monolog. This is how you do logging in Magento 2.

<?php

use Psr\Log\LoggerInterface as Logger;

class Foo
{
    private $logger;

    public function __construct(Logger $logger)
    {
        $this->logger = $logger;
    }
}

The Logger

Magento\Framework\Logger\Monolog extends Monolog\Logger\Monolog, the entry point for logging when using Monolog without Magento. There are two main things it is responsible for doing..

1. Passing the Handlers

By constructing an instance of the logger through the Magento framework, di.xml can be used to pass arguments.

The handlers passed to the logger are also found in app/etc/di.xml. If you’ll scroll further down the file you’ll see the following…

<type name="Magento\Framework\Logger\Monolog">
    <arguments>
        <argument name="handlers"  xsi:type="array">
            <item name="system" xsi:type="object">Magento\Framework\Logger\Handler\System</item>
            <item name="debug" xsi:type="object">Magento\Framework\Logger\Handler\Debug</item>
        </argument>
    </arguments>
</type>

As we can see, by default, Magento declares 2 handlers, the system handler and the debug handler.

2. Intercepting Exception Logging

Magento\Framework\Logger\Monolog also checks each log record to inspect whether or not it is an Exception. If it is, it ensures that this is specified in the $context (we’ll see why this is important shortly). It also, grabs the exception message before passing the record to the parent…

// Magento\Framework\Logger\Monolog
public function addRecord($level, $message, array $context = [])
{
    if ($message instanceof \Exception && !isset($context['exception'])) {
        $context['exception'] = $message;
    }

    $message = $message instanceof \Exception ? $message->getMessage() : $message;

    return parent::addRecord($level, $message, $context);
}

The System Handler

The system handler will accept anything with log level INFO of higher and write it to var/log/system.log.

// Magento\Framework\Logger\Handler\System
protected $fileName = '/var/log/system.log';

protected $loggerType = Logger::INFO;

However, before doing so it will check if the log record is an Exception (now we see why the $context was important). In that case it will pass the record to $exceptionHandler (an instance of Magento\Framework\Logger\Handler\Exception) and bail before writing to system.log

// Magento\Framework\Logger\Handler\System
public function write(array $record)
{
    if (isset($record['context']['exception'])) {
        $this->exceptionHandler->handle($record);

        return;
    }

    parent::write($record);
}

The Exception Handler

The exception handler is pretty boring. Outside of specifying var/log/exception.log as its log file, it doesn’t do anything…

// Magento\Framework\Logger\Handler\Exception
protected $fileName = '/var/log/exception.log';

The Debug Handler

On the surface, the debug handler looks to be more or less as boring as the exception handler, simply specifying as the file name var/log/debug.log and that it will write DEBUG level logs…

// Magento\Framework\Logger\Handler\Debug
protected $fileName = '/var/log/debug.log';

protected $loggerType = Logger::DEBUG;

That is, until you realize that Magento_Developer specifies a preference for Magento\Framework\Logger\Handler\Debug

<preference for="Magento\Framework\Logger\Handler\Debug" type="Magento\Developer\Model\Logger\Handler\Debug"/>

Magento\Developer\Model\Logger\Handler\Debug checks that debug logging setting is enabled prior to logging.

// Magento\Developer\Model\Logger\Handler\Debug::isHandling()
return parent::isHandling($record)
    && $this->scopeConfig->getValue('dev/debug/debug_logging', ScopeInterface::SCOPE_STORE);

Debug logging is off by default, so if you want to see debug logs, you’ll need to specifically enable it in the admin panel under Stores > Configuration > Advanced > Developer > Debug > Log to File.

Max Chadwick Hi, I'm Max!

I'm a software developer who mainly works in PHP, but also dabbles in Ruby and Go. Technical topics that interest me are monitoring, security and performance.

During the day I solve challenging technical problems at Something Digital where I mainly work with the Magento platform. I also blog about tech, work on open source and hunt for bugs.

If you'd like to get in touch with me the best way is on Twitter.